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From Mohism's Book of Mozi: Book 12, Esteem for Righteousness (In Chinese)    
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Today’s Between Master and Disciples – “From Mohism’s Book of Mozi: Book 12 – Esteem for Righteousness” – will be presented in Chinese with subtitles in Arabic, Aulacese (Vietnamese), Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech-Slovak, English, French, German, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Mongolian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish and Thai.

Mozi or Mo Tzu was a Chinese philosopher who lived around 460 BCE to 391. He was a pacifist who traveled from one region to another to try to convince rulers from their plans of conquest. Mo Tzu’s teachings encompass self-reflection to attain true self knowledge, universal love and enlightened self-interest in social relations. He advocated self-restraint in which a person would indulge in neither material nor spiritual extravagance. His philosophy encompassed the concept that one must do actions which brought the most benefit for the general welfare of all. We now present an excerpt of Mo Tzu’s teachings, “Esteem for Righteousness,” from the book Mozi.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television.

Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.

Thank you for your happy company for today’s episode of Between Master and Disciples here on Supreme Master Television.

Up next is Planet Earth: Our Loving Home right after Noteworthy News. May Heaven’s blessing be bountiful in your daily life.
Esteem for Righteousness

Mozi said: Of the multitude of things none is more valuable than righteousness. Suppose we say to a person: We shall give you a hat and shoes on condition you let us cut off your hands and feet. Would he agree to this? Of course, he will not agree. Why? Just because hats and shoes are not so valuable as hands and feet.

Again if we say, we shall give you the whole world on condition you let us kill you. Would he agree to this? Of course he will not agree. Why? Just because the world is not so valuable as one's person. Yet people have struggled against one another for a single principle. This shows righteousness is even more valuable than one's person. Hence we say, of the multitude of things none is more valuable than righteousness.

On his way from Lu to Qi, Mozi met an old friend who said to him: "Nowadays none in the world practices any righteousness. You are merely inflicting pain on yourself by trying to practice righteousness. You had better give it up." Mozi replied: “Suppose a man has ten sons. Only one attends to the farm while the other nine stay at home. Then the farmer must work all the more vigorously. Why? Because many eat while few work. Now, none in the world practices righteousness. Then you should all the more encourage me. Why do you stop me?”

Mozi travelled south to Chu to see Lord Hui of Chu. Lord Hui refused to see him with the excuse of his being old, and let Mu He receive him. Mozi talked to Mu He and Mu He was greatly pleased. He said to Mozi: "Your ideas may be quite good. But our Lord is a great lord of the empire. Can't he refuse to employ them because they come only from a humble man?" Mozi replied: “So long as they are applicable they are like good medicines, which are only the roots of herbs. Yet even the emperor takes them to cure his sickness.

Does he refuse to take them because they are only the roots of a herb? Now, the farmer pays his tax to the superior. With this, the superior prepares cakes to make an offering to God, ghosts and spirits. Do these refuse to accept them because they come from the humble? So, even a humble man can yet be compared to the farmer, or, at least to medicine. Is he even of less value than the roots of a herb? Moreover, has not my Lord heard the story of Tang? Anciently, Tang was going to see Yi Yin and let a son of the house of Peng be the driver. On the way, the son of Peng inquired where the lord was going.

Tang told him that he was going to see Yi Yin. The son of Peng said: ‘Yi Yin is but a humble man of the world. If you want to see him just send for him and he will feel quite flattered.’ Tang said: ‘This is not what you can understand. Here is some medicine. When taken, it will sharpen the ears and brighten the eyes. Then I shall be pleased and endeavor to take it. Now, Yi Yin to me is like a good physician and an effective medicine. Yet you don't think I should see him. It means you do not want to see me become good.’ Thereupon he dismissed the son of Peng and did not let him drive any more. If Lord Hui could be like Tang, he would then be able to accept the ideas from a humble man.”

Mozi said: “Any word, any action, that is beneficial to Heaven, the spirits, and the people is to be carried out. Any word, any action, that is harmful to Heaven, the spirits, and the people is to be abandoned. Any word, any action, that is in harmony with the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, is to be carried out. Any word, any action, that is in agreement with the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, is to be abandoned.”

Mozi said: “Any principle that can modify conduct, expound much; any principle that cannot modify conduct, do not expound much. To expound much what cannot modify conduct is just to wear out one's mouth.”

Mozi said: “The six peculiarities must be removed. When silent one should be deliberating; when talking one should instruct; when acting one should achieve something. When one employs these three alternatively he will be a sage. Pleasure, anger, joy, sorrow, love and hate are to be removed and magnanimity and righteousness are to replace them. When hands, feet, mouth, nose, ears and eyes are employed for righteousness, then one will surely be a sage.”

Mozi said to a few of his disciples: “Though one cannot achieve righteousness one must not abandon the way, just as the carpenter must not blame the line though he cannot saw the lumber straight.”

Mozi said: “As the gentlemen in the world cannot be butchers of dogs and pigs, they would refuse when asked to be such. Yet, though they are not capable of being ministers in a state, they would accept it when asked to be such. Isn't this perverse?”

Mozi said: “The blind say that which is bright is white, that which is dark is black. Even the keen-sighted cannot alter this. But if we should mix up the black and white objects and let the blind select them, they could not do it. Hence the reason that I say the blind do not know white from black does not lie in the matter of definition but in the process of selection. Now, the way the gentlemen of the world define magnanimity even Yu and Tang cannot alter.

But when we mix up magnanimous conduct with unmagnanimous conduct and let the gentlemen of the world choose them, they do not know which is which. So, the reason that I say the gentlemen of the world do not know magnanimity does not lie in the matter of definition either; it also lies in the process of selection.”

Mozi said: “The gentlemen of today handle their persons with even less care than the merchant would handle a bale of cloth. When the merchant handles a bale of cloth he dare not sell it without discretion; he will surely select a good one. But the gentlemen of today handle their person quite differently. Whatever they happen to desire they will carry out. In the more severe cases, they fall into punishment; even in less severe cases, they are visited with condemnation. So then, the gentlemen are even less careful in handling their persons than the merchant is in handling a bale of cloth.”

Mozi said: “The gentlemen of our time desire to achieve righteousness. Yet when we endeavor to help them in the cultivation of their personality they become resentful. This is like desiring the completion of a wall and becoming resentful when helped in the building. Isn't this perverse?”

Mozi said: “The sage-kings of old wanted to have their teaching passed to future generations. Therefore they recorded it on bamboos and engraved it in metal and stone to bequeath to posterity so that their descendants could follow it. Now the ways of the early kings are known but not carried out. This is to break the tradition of the early kings.”

Mozi brought numerous books in his wagon drawers on his southern journey as an envoy to Wei. Xian Dangzi saw them and was surprised. He inquired: "Sir, you have instructed Gong Shang Guo just to consider the right and wrong of any case, and do no more. Now you, sir, bring very many books along. What can be the use for them?"

Mozi said: “Anciently, Duke Dan of Zhou read one hundred pages every morning and received seventy scholars every evening. Therefore his achievements as minister to the emperor have lasted till this day. I have no superior above me to serve, nor any farm below to attend to. How dare I neglect these books? I have heard, though the different ways lead to the same end they are not presented without deviations. And the common people do not know how to place proper importance in what they hear. Hence the large number of books. When one has reviewed the ideas and has thought deeply on them then he understands the essentials which lead to the same end. Therefore he does not need to be instructed by books. Why should you feel so much surprised?”

Mozi had introduced somebody to office in Wei. The man went and returned. Mozi asked him why he returned. He answered: "In counsel my opinions were not considered. Being promised a thousand pen was given only five hundred. Therefore I left." Mozi inquired: “Suppose you were given more than a thousand pen, would you still leave?” It was answered, no. Mozi said: “Then it is not because of lack of consideration. It is because of the smallness of the salary.”

Mozi said: “The gentlemen of the world have even less regard for the righteous man than for the grain carrier. If a carrier was resting by the road side and was unable to rise up, the gentlemen would surely help him to rise upon seeing him, whether he be old or young, honorable or humble. Why? Because it is right. But when the gentleman who practices righteousness urges them with the way of the early kings, they are not only unwilling to carry it out but will even trample it down. So, then, the gentlemen of the world have even less regard for the righteous man than for the grain carrier.”

Mozi said: “The merchants go everywhere to do business and their gain is doubled and multiplied. They persist notwithstanding the difficulties at the passes and bridges, and the dangers of the highwaymen and robbers. Now the gentlemen can sit down and teach righteousness. There are no difficulties at the passes and bridges or dangers from highwaymen and robbers. Their gain should be not only doubled and multiplied but become incalculable. Yet, they will not do it. Then the gentlemen are not as discerning as the merchants in their calculation of benefits.”

Mozi was going north to Qi and met a fortuneteller on the way. The fortuneteller told him: "God kills the black dragon in the north today. Now, your complexion is dark. You must not go north." Mozi did not listen to him and went north. At the Ze River he could proceed no further and returned. The fortuneteller said: "I have told you that you must not go north." Mozi said: “People in the south, of course, cannot go north of the Ze River, but neither can those in the north come south. Moreover, there are the dark-complexioned, but there are also the fair-complexioned.

Why is it that neither can proceed? Besides, God kills the blue dragon on the days of Jia and of Yi in the East, the red dragon on the days of Bing and of Ding in the South, the white dragon on the days of Geng and of Xin in the West, and the black dragon on the days of Ren and of Gui in the North. According to you then all the travelers in the world will be prohibited, then all their plans will be curbed and the world made empty. Your idea is not to be adopted.” Mozi said: “My principle is sufficient. To abandon my principle and exercise thought is like abandoning the crop and trying to pick up grains. To refute my principle with one's own principle is like throwing an egg against a boulder. The eggs in the world would be exhausted without doing any harm to the boulder.”
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