MC(f): This is the time for all government institutions, media and individuals to encourage good deeds with the common goal to save all lives on Earth! Too many lives are at stake now. It is that urgent. We have no choice but to act right now! If managed sustainably, the resources of the world can be used sustainably and shared by all. Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country and represents a significant proportion of the world's population and thus plays a very important role. We can lead the way by being shining examples to the rest of the world on how to live sustainably.
MC(m): And today, we have the privilege to hear from Miss Amanda Katili Niode. She is a special assistant to Indonesia's Environment Minister, and a member of the National Council on Climate Change. She has had the opportunity to receive firsthand training from Mr. Al Gore, former Vice President of the United States and joint Nobel Laureate for Peace in 2007, for efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about climate change, and to lay the foundations for the urgent measures that are needed to counteract such change. Her talk today is titled “Global Warming and the Impacts on Life.” So, let's welcome Miss Amanda Katili Niode.
AKN(f): Thank you for the warm welcome.
AKN(f): May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be with you. Peace for us all. Ladies and gentlemen, what we will try to show this afternoon are visualizations of what has been said by madam, an expert staff of the Minister of Environment, Mrs. Sri Hudyastuti, and also some of the pictures from the training conducted by Mr. Al Gore. So, there are two institutions that we will report the information from, namely the National Council on Climate Change, and The Climate Project Indonesia and I will explain later what the organization does.
This is the national focal point of climate change in Indonesia. The institution was established under Presidential Regulations No. 46 in 2008 and chaired directly by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, namely Mr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. There are 17 ministers, and then the head of the climatology agency. We are the supporting unit from The National Council on Climate Change.
The Climate Project is an organization established by Al Gore, the former Vice President of America and Noble laureate in 2007. He was so successful in his campaign on climate change through the film, maybe you have seen it, “The Inconvenient Truth”? So, after the movie's success, he was asked by reporters, “What's next?” And he said, “I'm going to train 1000 people in the United States so they can communicate the climate crisis, like what I'm doing, and I will give my slides to them.” So then he trained 1000 people in the United States, and later, many other countries also wanted to participate.
So, Al Gore then provided training in the UK, Australia, Canada and other countries. What we see here…this is The Climate Project International, and there are 54 Indonesian people directly trained by Al Gore. We are all volunteers, and we could be invited anywhere to provide information about climate change, but of course the knowledge should be localized according to the situation and conditions of respective regions.
So we can see here, in America and Mexico, they have just completed their training; in Australia, the training is also taking place, and in India too. Of course, it also exists in Canada. So there are eight, and Al Gore has already approved the establishment of The Climate Project Indonesia, which right now I am entrusted to lead.
The next slide is the State of the Future, which makes us truly pay attention to what exactly is going on and what we should do. It reads in red letters, “climate change.” This is a concern of many people around the world, including the lack of clean water, desertification, rising food prices and increased energy as already described in the previous audiovisual. We can see that climate change is a global phenomenon. It is a global phenomenon that occurs everywhere.
So what we do here could affect those in other countries. And what can be done in other countries will also affect us here. So there are greenhouse gas emissions due to human activities that are causing greenhouse effects, which then cause global warming. If the Earth gets increasingly hot, then the climate will change. With climate change, there will be more and more disasters emerging as had been envisaged, as we often see in the news.
The following is information about the difference between weather and climate. In fact, the climate is long-term, so about 10 years, 20 years, 30 years, whereas the weather is present, such as temperature, and now cold…there is melting ice, moisture, and so forth. So, climate change is a change in weather patterns. So, when the weather patterns change, it's called climate change.
Next, we see one image that was taken by astronauts from space with a camera. We see pictures of the Earth, generally satellite images. We all realize that the world is finite. Next, we see, for example, if we make the Earth flat, this is similar to what we see in the atlas that our children or our youngsters have in their school lessons. According to the latest data, forests cover 30% of land area on Earth.
Next, we see that the Earth actually has a “blanket,” but the “blanket” is disturbed. Why is it disturbed? It was disturbed by the greenhouse gases, as we see in the picture below. This was the change in land use: the use of fossil fuels, forest fires, the use of factories. These all emit greenhouse gases. There are six greenhouse gases regulated in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
But what is often measured is carbon dioxide. So, many of those gases are equated with carbon dioxide. From livestock, we see that there is also a mention of methane. Waste management also emits methane, agriculture and biomass burning, etc. However, the global warming potential of methane is 21 times greater than carbon dioxide. Mostly the greenhouse gases are from industries.
Next, we see the situation in Indonesia. We see the position of Indonesia on the map makes it highly vulnerable to climate change, especially to sea level rise. Where are the most emissions coming from? If we see the white line, 84% of our greenhouse gas emissions come from deforestation and also from peatlands. We see emissions from developed countries are not from deforestation, they are from industries - from electricity, and so forth. So, if we want to reduce greenhouse gases, of course, we must see where our greatest contribution comes from; that's where we will try to overcome it.
This gives us an illustration that, in fact, we have a lot of topics related to food. We see that the agricultural sector has become the main source of methane emissions, i.e. 59% of the total national emissions. This data comes from the Department of Agriculture. There are six greenhouse gases being regulated; but, actually, there are other greenhouse gases with greenhouse effects.
What is greenhouse gas effect? This is an actual greenhouse. For example, if any one of you have been to Holland, it's cold there, isn't it? The greenhouses are regulated so the plants can grow well and bloom beautifully. Now, the roof is like a blanket on our Earth. We will see the explanation in the next slide.
When the sun shines on Earth, a great part of the energy is absorbed; it has to be absorbed. We see there is an Earth “blanket,” then it's reflected back. A big part of that energy is being reflected. But as the Earth “blanket” gets thicker due to the gases emitted, instead of being reflected, they re-enter the Earth again; thus the Earth becomes warmer. Next, we will see what will happen if the Earth gets warmer. It was mentioned before that we have climate change. We have seen the ice melting. Within 20 years it will turn into this.
That is in the northern hemisphere. This is a ski area in Europe - the ice has disappeared. The hotels are still there but there are no more skiers, thus the economy is suffering. And next, we will see again the southern hemisphere facing the same situation. We see that in 1939, it was like that. A few decades later, in 2001, they were gone. The horrible thing is that this is what may happen to the Himalayan glaciers or the ice caps in the Himalayan mountains, because this is the source of seven big rivers in that area - such as the Ganges River, Brahmaputra River, Salween, Yellow River, etc.
So, what will happen if the ice caps in the Himalayas are gone? More than 40% of world's population, about 3 billion people, depend on the Himalayas as a source of water, so definitely they will lose their source of fresh water. These are data on the warmest 10 years that have ever been recorded. They were the warmest years, all of them are above the average of 1998.
The increased utilization of fossil fuels by humans will make the Earth warmer. Next, what we see is what happened in India - the temperature rises to 50 degrees Celsius. I have just returned from a meeting with The Indonesian Peasant Alliance. They said, “Madam, not just India, in Indramayu we also had 50 degrees Celsius.” So this shows that it's a global phenomenon. It is everywhere. Next is information on what happened in Pakistan: 52 degrees Celsius. Of course, there were victims. And next, what we see is that since the 1970s, the storms have been getting bigger, stronger and longer in duration. This is a study from MIT, quoted by Al Gore. Next we will see a picture from NASA.
Imagine, on September 2, 2008, there were four storms in a row. Maybe you still remember what happened with Katrina. We can imagine what will happen if four storms - Josephine, Ike, Hanna, Gustav - took turns in hitting one area, and this is a sign of climate change. So we have many storms. Next, we will see the victims of the storms. This is in Greensburg, Kansas - it is heavily damaged. Now, they started rebuilding in Green Greensburg. So they are using sustainable energy. This shows that it's a global phenomenon, not only in Kansas, not only in Greensburg. This is Yogyakarta. The school activities are disrupted due to the storms. And next is in areas where there had never been any tornadoes, close to Monas.
The City Hall of Jakarta has experienced this. This is April 2009. Floods and droughts are everywhere. Next is the state of Washington. Why do I show this picture? Because Washington State is the birthplace of Bill Gates, one of the richest men in the world. He also cannot escape the flooding. Then, next, we will see again that Europe - which normally is never flooded - is also being flooded. So, infrastructures are also very much affected. And next, we will see my hometown in Gorontalo. Droughts - farmers are facing failing harvests. So, floods and droughts are everywhere. And next, we will see the impacts in the world.
For Indonesia, this is horrifying, in my opinion. In 2008, disasters related to climate: floods 20%, landslides 25%, tsunamis 13%, tornadoes 33% - most are climate related. And next, we will see impacts of climate change on farming. It can affect the fields... flooded with water. But, it can also become barren. These are the phenomena. So, if for instance in the oceans, there is warming, then there is evaporation. There are winds that suit certain temperatures; then storms will emerge. Meanwhile, if the region is warming up, then it will become cracked like below.
What we will see next is how, with on agriculture, patterns of cultivation are changing. Definitely this will affect the produce that we grow. Next, we see that farmers in rain reservoir lands will change their harvest patterns or neglect their land, if the rainfalls and runoffs are decreasing or increasing. There was a farmer who told me, “We want to keep this planet, not for it to get warmer, but the land is not ours.” They are just workers. “So because we don't own any land, we were forced to clear new land. We want to protect this Earth, but we don't have land of our own, so we were forced to clear land.” I've heard many stories like this.
Next, we see what is happening in the North Pole. Using data from NASA in 1980, like this, next we see in 2007 the sea ice has lessened, animals are losing their habitats. In this picture, we see what is happening in the South Pole. The red one, in this picture of the South Pole, it is getting hotter. And what is at the South Pole? We just saw a polar bear at the South Pole, then we see penguins that have lost their habitat. They are the indicators of the health of this planet. If the Earth is getting sicker in the north and in the south, we, in the equatorial area, will surely get affected sooner or later.
In the next slide we see the Maldives. Maybe you have heard that they were having a cabinet meeting under water. I met the ministers. Actually, they said that they are already desperate. The sea level has started to rise and their land is only one meter above the sea level. And they are going to find land for a new country. The situation is of grave concern. This is infrastructure affected by sea level rise. Next, we see Calcutta, India, which has been affected. “Climigration” refers to people who migrate due to climate change. If the sea level rises to six meters, then the number of refugees will be 400 million because they will lose their homes.
What can we do? So, adaptation - we adjust or change the pattern of development. Or, mitigation - we mitigate and reduce emissions. If we don't do these two things, we will suffer a lot. These are examples of adaptation: for example, adjust the crop pattern and avoid digging the soil on the slopes. Next, we see adaptation maps created by scientists. So, we can see which areas are vulnerable to climate change. Next, we see adaptation-planning for climate change in agriculture.
The next slide shows examples of mitigation: we can plant trees, we can save energy, we can stop burning garbage. And next we see the use of sustainable energy, energy efficiency or reducing emissions. We must do this for the sake of our nation. Because we can see here, the dot on the right side, this is our Earth, 4.5 billion kilometers from the Earth's surface. We are nothing in this universe. We have to do something.
Especially if we see from the last slide the amount of clean water on Earth compared to its volume, shown on the left side - only that small dot is left. Meanwhile, the amount of clean air remaining on this planet, as compared to its volume, is this pink dot on the right side. We have to do something. Peace be upon you.
MC(m): Many thanks once again to Ms. Amanda Katili Niode for sharing this valuable information with us. We can see from your presentation that time is running out, and we must all play our part to bring about a brighter future for this world.
MC(f): Indonesia needs to both maintain economic development and cope with climate change at the same time. If we try to reduce only CO2 emissions, not only will we consume huge amounts of money, but our efforts may not have a fast enough effect on climate change. If we adopt the vegan diet, we can definitely curb climate change in the quickest and most efficient manner, without any adverse costs to economy. This approach also enables all of our brothers and sisters across the country to live in prosperity.
MC(m): Indonesia's natural beauty inspires us. Talented, environmentally conscious individuals share their inspiration with us through the avenue of music and song composition. Now, it is our great pleasure to introduce a very special and well-known local musician, artist and environmentalist, Nugie. Through the songs he will perform today, he shows his love for nature and deep concern for our animal friends. Let us enjoy his songs together. A big hand for Nugie.
Nugie(m): Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Green regards from me. I hope you will answer it with “forever.” Green regards. (Q(audience): Forever). Thank you.
Actually, I wrote the song for the International Climate Change Conference in Bali in 2007. And this song has become a theme song for the conference in Bali, and hopefully it's going to be a theme song for all humankind in the world.
The environmental problem must be handled by all of us, people who live on Earth. And the only way to overcome it is by sharing with our fellow human beings throughout the Earth. Look around you Water is fading to nowhere Does it move your heart? Look around you Hungry eyes bear hunger Does it touch your soul? While we are here, greedily consuming without knowing the limit Look around you Green forests are turning into desert Does it touch your heart? O look around you People struggle to survive Does it stir your soul?
While we have everything here Can we survive If we don't start to act now? Share with the world The warming Earth needs us Share with the world Open your eyes and heart to share Let's share Reach out your hands Never doubt, my friend The world is calling for us to act For our Earth, for our one Earth While we are here, greedily consuming Share with the world The warming Earth needs us Share with the world Open your eyes and heart to share Share with the world The warming Earth needs us Share with the world Open your eyes and heart to share Share with the world The warming Earth needs us Let's share.
Nugie (m): Thank you. It is a privilege for me to be here in this place, because I am sure that the audience here is very concerned and wishes to do something for the Earth. And I am very, very appreciative of this invitation, and this one is coming from my album. This song makes me learn a lot about the harmonious relationships between human beings and nature.
Fly away, one of its fragile feathers Its beak down as in mourning Will I be able to sing to greet the morning? Leaping hastily to a pine branch Remembering its chick learning to fly To continue its duty, coloring the Earth Blow, my wind, carry my song Wave, my leaves, follow my flapping wings
Blow, my wind, carry my story Wave, my leaves, follow my freedom Closing its eyes and flying down Stay away from the black clouds Will I be able to brighten the sky? Blow, my wind, carry my song Wave, my leaves, follow my flapping wings Blow, my wind, carry my story Wave, my leaves, follow my freedom Will I be able to brighten the sky? Blow, my wind, carry my song Wave, my leaves, follow my flapping wings Blow, my wind, carry my story Wave, my leaves, follow my love for Indonesia.
Thank you very much.
MC(m): Wow, What a beautiful voice, Nugie! Thank you, Nugie. Thank you for touching us with your songs and raising awareness and compassion for the environment. Let us hope more and more people join together and act now for climate change!
I am Anton Budiono. I am a physician at Mintoharjo Navy Hospital and the Head of the Sub Department of Hyperbaric Medicine and Acupuncture Herbal Medicine Department. I am a Master of Science in Hyperbaric Medicine and Master of Pharmacy in Natural Medicine. My message is:
Please be veg! Go green! And save our planet! Thank you!
Dr Hira Jhamhani (f): I think this seminar is very good for educating society. I saw many people asking what global warming is, greenhouse gas effect, etc. People will understand more in relation to the organic, vegan diet. This is also providing the solution on an individual level. Be veg! Go green! Save the planet!